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Archaeological Site of Dystos

 

The site extends the Dystos in the hill castle, where even the imposing towers of the ancient city wall, dating to the first half of the fourth century. BC It was built for the most part by large and well-worked blocks and reach the width of two meters. Strengthened by eleven towers, which are arranged at intervals around the hill. In the eastern part of the wall is dominated by the only gate flanked by two towers, fortification technique typical example of the classical era. The excellent masonry walls of the powerful and majestic eastern gate may be saved from the Dystos witnessed the siege sources. However the reference to Philip Theopompus "... apostisas not to those in this perioikidi of Eretrians, estratefsen on Dystos city "does not allow us to identify it with certainty the particular war incident.   To the northwest and south of the hill ruins of houses were built of carved stones and well under the walls dating from the archaic and classical periods. For the construction of the local marble was used, as shown by surviving traces of quarrying near the wall of the settlement. Most houses had one room, while some had a yard and barn. The best preserved of these, called "Big House", located east of the village is a remarkable example of residential architecture of the fourth century. BC Access to the walled village should become a main road, which ran the north and south, while narrow streets leading to their homes. For water supply the village used a large public pool, carved in the southern part of the fortification wall.   An important element in determining the limits of Dystos is the recent identification of two inscribed stone conditions. The first, dating to the second half of the fifth century. BC, was found in the east boundaries of the lake and southwest of the church of St. George. A second term with the inscription TERM MUNICIPALITY, the 4th century. BC, was found carved into the rock, at the close of a two-storey house on the hill of Kontostafleikon. This inscription is the first direct evidence that the municipality was Dystos belonged to Eretriaki territory. The discovery of ancient plants, architectural, inscribed tombs and funerary columns in plain Dystos shows that the occupation extends to this region.

History

 

The imposing, rocky and steep conical hill Castle, on the plain near the lake Dystos, founded in antiquity the homonym settlement. Its location in the hinterland Dystos Evia, within walking distance from the coast, favored land and maritime contacts with the rest of Euboea and the coast of Attica. The seaport of the Silver (today Porto Buffalo), linked to the settlement with hackman road, was the nearest anchorage, which offered a safe haven for ships. The reference to "Dystos: Evia city" in Philip Theopompus, preserved by the writer Stefan Byzantium is the only literary evidence for the ancient city. According to ancient grammatology the word "Dystos" says the unhappy, and has recently formulated the theory that the place name probably comes from a diving or sinking, which occurred in the area and refers to relevant geological phenomenon.   The shores of Lake Dystos formed from prehistoric times, ideal place for establishing residential cores. The first signs of habitation in the area date back to Neolithic times, as indicated by the finding obsidian blades and pottery Neolithic sherds. Centuries later the hill was the organized settlement that existed from the archaic, but it flourished in classical and Hellenistic period. In the mid-fourth century. BC the City of Dystos is likely to play a role, when Philip II of Macedon tried to control the political situation in Evia, Eretria inciting revolt against oligarchic ruler Plutarch. In the fourth century. BC The settlement of Dystos fortified with massive walls, while the top of the hill and protected with a second defensive wall.   A relief RESOLUTIONof the same period, referred to the drying of Lake Ptechon, which probably coincides with Lake Dystos allows us to assume that the first efforts to desiccation date back to that time. The inscribed column, which in antiquity was staged in the temple of Apollo at Eretria, Chalcis was in the square Glass (former Prison Square) in 1860 and now kept in the Epigraphical Museum of Athens. The upper part is decorated with relief, in which there are the traces of two forms, Artemis and Leto, and the text of the contract relates desiccation of the lake between Chairefani, the project contractor, and 230 Eretrians citizens. Under the terms of the contract, which remain valid today, the planned construction of sewers, drains and sewers for the drainage of water in natural underground fissures, sinks.   The port seems Dystos continued to be used even in Roman times, as indicated by the finding of 95 dinars a treasure (treasure Vyrron) of the Roman Republic. The evidence for the history of Dystos in Byzantine times and periods of Venetian and Ottoman are minimal. The area should be followed the fate of the wider central Evia. During the early Byzantine times, the area belonged to the diocese or Avlonos Strait, while continuing the occupation in Byzantine times indicated by the ruins of churches. During the Venetian occupation of the hill Dystos reinforced with city walls and a tower, from which it was monitoring the area and communication with the neighboring towers of the boat and the Koutoumoula (or Katomoula).   The identification of ancient Dystos was from the early 19th century thanks to the preservation of ancient placename in a small, deserted now, a village near the foot of the hill. The ancient ruins of the area attracted the attention of many researchers and archaeologists, such as L. Ross (1844), Ragavis A. (1853) and HG Lolling (1876-1877). The T. Wiegand (1895) was the first archaeologist, conducted in 1898, the design imprint of ancient ruins. Several decades later, in 1976 the German archaeologists L. Schwandner and W. Hoepfner and colleagues proceeded to design more accurate mapping and study of the building remains preserved on the hill.
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