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Archaeological Site of Manika


The largest excavated part of the settlement which still exists is that I have identified where public buildings and houses in great numbers. There orthogonia buildings with courtyards, one beside the other. One road leads rather to the sea, while in this other streets leading to EW direction. The buildings here date from the Early Helladic II period, although there are few previously relic. Particular attention should be two unusual horseshoe buildings with thick walls that are very likely to belong to "granaries" of the era, dating to the Early Helladic II also not excluded at this point there were significant buildings and storage areas where concentrated surplus production which probably came from the two great valleys of Lelantine field and cavity of the river looking for. The structures would certainly be public and will be controlled by a ruler. We assume that the same central authority would be responsible for the generation, collection and transportation of goods. The surplus (mainly wheat) when there could be exported to poorer regions, which because of poor land produce small quantities of barley, for paradeigna the Cyclades islands. This role of the Hose or better prehistoric Chalcis, as a productive and commercial center in a strategic position between Attica, Boeotia, Thessaly and the Cyclades are very important for us to reconstruct the economic base of the Early Bronze Age and its geographical context.   The buildings of the Hose must have had a flat roof, because the excavations remains completely absent tiles. Another feature is the stone that exist in open and enclosed spaces. Similar stone observed in other EH settlements like Linovrochi the Magoula Eretria and Kalogerovrysi. The shape of the buildings are usually rectangular, while the arched structures are rare and usually atypical. One wonders what use were these buildings with the arched shape. So far there was no building Megaroid type that can be described as public, similar to those found in Thebes, Akovitika of Messinia, the Lerna in the Argolid and elsewhere. But if there should be palace was in a high position as is the area I   The significance of the cemetery of Manika is particularly important because from there they come from and most finds (pottery, metal tools and utensils). Although the tombs were excavated do not exceed three hundred, are a rare set of burial, which has been extensively studied in terms of construction, in terms of findings and skeletal remains. This is a monumental carved tombs whose construction seems the result of a well organized and hierarchical society. The skeletal material studied by the Department of Biology, University of Athens and prepares comprehensive publication, which, in connection with offerings will contribute to better knowledge of social and economic conditions.   The offerings of the cemetery is basically Greece, there are numerous offerings but eastern and Cycladic style. The oriental vases found in the cemetery of Manika dating to the Early Helladic III period and are often most of the Cyclades. Similar oriental pottery has been found in the Cyclades (Syros Castri, Paros, Delos) and supported theories of equality eastern invasion. In mainland Greece there is a strong internationalist climate for exchange and a train which favored the spread of Cycladic and eastern cultures.
View of the prehistoric settlement (Photo Ministry of Culture)
View of the prehistoric settlement (Photo Ministry of Culture)
View of buildings in the area 1 (Photo Ministry of Culture)
View of the prehistoric cemetery (Photograph Ministry of Culture)
View of chamber tombs (Photo Ministry of Culture)
Tomb of the prehistoric cemetery (Photograph by Ministry of Culture)



This is an important prehistoric settlement and cemetery of the Early Bronze Age (3000-1900 BC) located in a fertile and strategic point on the Evian Gulf, near Chalcis. It is undisputed that the settlement of Manika was a whole city although not as densely structured as excavation found that there were enough open space. The heyday of the settlement should be that controlled the water main route of communication of that time, the Evian gulf, while the trafficked and processed, especially obsidian and metals, which ought and greater development. By J. Davis was described as one of the largest settlements of the Bronze Age in Greece, but if you look deeper you find things that until now has not been found in other larger scale. There are also open to doubt that the city had a fairly regular urban plan, because in the most remote spots found the orientation of the houses with NS or EW. This orientation seems to be influenced by both physical lines, the coast and the ancient road which went along the direction B - L.   Surveys in Manika have long filled decade, but a small part of the settlement has been excavated, and the bulk (about 600 acres) is covered by buildings, so there is no further possibility of excavation. Most of the cemetery was estimated at more than 5000 graves must have been destroyed by uncontrolled construction. Only a few hundred graves have been excavated, but still visited a few dozen of them.  
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